# Gravity¶

## Introduction¶

In order to use gravity, one must set

nyx.do_grav= 1

in the inputs file. See Gravity: List of Parameters for relevant input flags.

## Poisson Approximation¶

In Nyx we always compute gravity by solving a Poisson equation on the mesh hierarchy. To define the gravitational vector we set

\[\mathbf{g}(\mathbf{x},t) = -\nabla \phi\]where

\[\mathbf{\Delta} \phi = \frac{4 \pi G}{a} (\rho - \overline{\rho}) \label{eq:Self Gravity}\]

where \(\overline{\rho}\) is the average of \(\rho\) over the entire domain if we assume triply periodic boundary conditions, and \(a(t)\) is the scale of the universe as a function of time.

## Time Integration Strategy¶

Nyx uses subcycling to integrate levels at different timesteps. The gravity algorithm needs to respect this. Self-gravity is computed via multigrid. At coarse-fine interfaces, the stencil used in the Laplacian understands the coarse-fine interface and is different than the stencil used in the interior.

There are two types of solves that we discuss with AMR:

*composite solve*: This is a multilevel solve, starting at a coarse level (usually level 0) and solving for the potential on all levels up to the finest level.*level solve*: This solves for the potential only on a particular level. Finer levels are ignored. At coarse-fine interfaces, the data from the coarse levels acts as Dirichlet boundary conditions for the current-level-solve.

Briefly:

At the beginning of a simulation, we do a multilevel composite solve (if

`gravity.no_composite`

= 0).We also do a multilevel composite solve after each regrid.

The old-time gravity on the coarse level is defined based on this composite solve, but we also do a level solve on the coarse level, and use it to determine the difference between the composite solve and the level solve, and store that in a MultiFab.

After the hydro advance on the coarse level, we do another level solve, and use the (level solve - compositive solve) as a lagged predictor of how much we need to add back to that level solve to get an effective new-time value for phi on the coarse level, and that’s what defines the phi used for the new-time gravity

Then we do the fine grid timestep(s), each using the same strategy

At an AMR synchronization step across levels, if we’re choosing to synchronize the gravitational field across levels (

`gravity.no_sync`

= 0) we then do a solve starting from the coarse grid that adjusts for the mismatch between the fine-grid phi and the coarse-grid phi, as well as the mismatch between the fine-grid density fluxes and the coarse-grid density fluxes, and add the resulting sync solve phi to both the coarse and the fine levelThus, to within the gravity error tolerance, you get the same final result as if you had done a full composite solve at the end of the timestep (assuming

`gravity.no_sync`

= 0).

If you do `gravity.no_composite`

= 1, then you never do a full
multilevel solve, and the gravity on any level is defined only by the
solve on that level. The only time this would be appropriate is if
the fine level(s) cover essentially all of the mass on the grid for
all time.

## Hydrodynamics Source Terms¶

We use a standard predictor-corrector formalism for updating the momentum and energy. Specifically, our first update is equal to \(\Delta t \times \mathbf{S}^n\) , where \(\mathbf{S}^n\) is the value of the source terms at the old-time (which is usually called time-level \(n\)). At the end of the timestep, we do a corrector step where we subtract off \(\Delta t / 2 \times \mathbf{S}^n\) and add on \(\Delta t / 2 \times \mathbf{S}^{n+1}\), so that at the end of the timestep the source term is properly time centered.